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Impact of Artificial Intelligence in The Legal Sector

India’s journey in AI has been extraordinary, marked by significant achievements and a strong government focus on harnessing the potential of this transformative technology. Since the early days of AI research pioneered by Professor H.N. Mahabala in the 1960s, India has steadily advanced in the field, culminating in the establishment of the National Program on AI in 2018 under the guidance of NITI Aayog, the country’s national think tank. This commitment to AI has positioned India as a key player in the global AI landscape. 

The impact of AI in India has been far-reaching, revolutionizing various sectors and improving the lives of citizens. In healthcare, AI-driven advancements have led to enhanced diagnostics, improved patient care, and accelerated drug discovery processes. The agricultural industry has also witnessed the benefits of AI, with intelligent solutions aiding farmers in crop monitoring, yield prediction, and pest control. The education sector has embraced AI for personalized learning experiences and intelligent tutoring systems, empowering students with tailored educational support. Furthermore, according to a survey conducted in 2022, a substantial 57 percent of companies in India had already deployed AI in their business operations, highlighting the widespread adoption of AI across industries.

Even in the legal sector, where the nuances of human judgment and emotional understanding are paramount, AI has found its place. The Supreme Court of India has implemented AI tools like SUPACE (Supreme Court Portal for Assistance in Court Efficiency) and SUVAS (Supreme Court Vidhik Anuvaad Software) to streamline judicial processes. These tools assist in gathering and analyzing information, as well as translating judgments into regional languages. Additionally, the recent introduction of AI Teres, an AI system used for real-time transcription of court proceedings, demonstrates the continued exploration of AI’s potential in the legal domain. However, it is important to note that while AI can aid in expediting legal procedures, it is not capable of completely replacing the expertise and human supervision of judges. 

India’s dedication to AI is evident through various government initiatives such as the ‘Make in India’ campaign and the upcoming ‘INDIAai’ comprehensive program. These efforts have not only accelerated AI adoption but also earned global recognition for India’s digitalization endeavors and the emergence of numerous AIfocused startups. As India took the G20 chair in 2022, it also assumed the chair in waiting for the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI), further solidifying its leadership role in shaping international AI policies. 

“Some people call this artificial intelligence, but the reality is this technology will enhance us. So instead of artificial intelligence, I think we’ll augment our intelligence.”
– Ginni Rometty

The growth of AI also necessitates the evolution of regulatory frameworks to address emerging challenges and safeguard users’ rights. India is currently in the process of enacting the Digital India Act, 2023, which aims to replace the outdated Information Technology Act of 2000. The proposed amendments emphasize the responsibility of social media platforms to protect users’ free speech rights, curb the spread of prohibited content and misinformation, and ensure accountability. However, compared to the United Kingdom’s approach, India’s focus appears to lean more towards regulation rather than fostering AI opportunities. Union Minister Rajeev Chandrasekhar has emphasized the need to regulate AI as a means to safeguard digital citizens, highlighting the government’s commitment to ensuring responsible AI deployment. 

On the global stage, countries like United Kingdom, United States, Japan, China and Canada have also taken steps to address AI regulation. The UK’s approach, supported by its strong legal foundation and technology-neutral legislation, aims to provide clarity and coherence to the AI regulatory landscape. The European Commission has published the draft Artificial Intelligence Act, which introduces obligations based on the classification of AI systems according to risk levels. In the  United States, the National AI Initiative Act of 2020 provides for a coordinated program across the entire Federal government to accelerate AI research and application for the nation’s economic prosperity and national security, but the US Congress is still pondering upon whether and how the US regulates ChatGPT and AI more generally to set the tone globally for AI regulation and how to address AI risks without stifling innovation. Canada’s proposed Artificial Intelligence and Data Act (AIDA) focuses on mandatory risk management and information disclosure for high-impact AI systems. These global initiatives reflect the growing recognition of the need for responsible AI governance.

As digital ministers convene at the 2023 G7 summit in Japan, discussions on the human-centric approach to AI took place, covering both regulatory and nonregulatory policy tools. Japan’s approach to AI regulation, characterized by a riskbased and multi-stakeholder process, provides valuable insights into global trends. The host country’s stance on AI regulation may significantly influence consensusbuilding among global leaders, shaping the future of AI governance. 

Japan’s AI regulatory policy is based on these Social Principles. Its AI regulations can be classified into two categories.
• Regulation on AI: Regulations to manage risks associated with AI.
• Regulation for AI: Regulatory reform to promote the implementation of AI.

Recently, Japan has declared that using datasets for training AI models doesn’t violate copyright law. This decision means that model trainers can gather publicly available data without having to license or secure permission from the data owners. Recently, the Cyberspace Administration of China unveiled a draft law saying that content generated by future AI products must reflect the country’s “core socialist values” and not encourage the subversion of state power. It further said AI content must not promote discrimination based on ethnicity, race, and gender and should not provide false information. 

In conclusion, India’s remarkable journey in AI has showcased its commitment to leveraging this powerful technology for societal progress. With achievements across various sectors, India has positioned itself as a global player in the AI landscape. While the legal sector has witnessed AI integration to expedite processes, the indispensable role of human judgment remains paramount. Striking a balance between regulation and innovation will be crucial as India continues to harness the potential of AI, safeguarding users’ rights, and ensuring responsible AI adoption. The evolution of regulatory frameworks both in India and globally will play a vital role in guiding AI’s development and mitigating potential risks while fostering a thriving AI ecosystem. 


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